Research for GreenMarble

A significant amount of research went into the creation of GreenMarble. While there is a significant amount of information on carbon emissions and carbon footprints, a single database or source of information that suited the purpose of GreenMarble could not be found. A wide variety of sources were used to create a database with a wide range of items included in GreenMarble. The primary sources of information were lifecycle assessment studies published in peer reviewed scientific journals, environmental declaration made by companies in conjunction with an environmental organization, and government statements.

The sources for GreenMarble are as follows:

Amienyo, D., & Azapagic, A. (2012). Life cycle sustainability assessment in the UK beverage sector (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Manchester.

Berlin, J., & Sund, V. (n.d.). LCA of two meals; pork and chicken & Screening assessments of six ready meals (Rep. No. 604 2010). SIK.

Berners-Lee, M. (2011). How bad are bananas?: the carbon footprint of everything. Vancouver: D & M .

Carbon Trust. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2017, from

Carlsson-Kanyama, A. (1998). Climate change and dietary choices — how can emissions of greenhouse gases from food consumption be reduced? Food Policy, 23(3-4), 277-293. doi:10.1016/s0306-9192(98)00037-2

Chapagain, A., Hoekstra, A., Savenije, H., & Gautam, R. (2006). The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries. Ecological Economics, 60(1), 186-203. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.11.027

Clayton, J. (n.d.). 1 kilowatt-hour. Retrieved April 05, 2017, from

Co., N. K. (n.d.). CONTINENTAL CLOTHING CO. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2017, from

Environment – Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2017, from

Environmental Working Group, A Meat Eater’s Guide, 2011. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2017, from

Evans, J. (03 September 2012). Carbon emissions from chilled and frozen cold chains for a typical UK Sunday roast chicken meal (Rep. No. RDT300). RD&T

Figueirêdo, M. C., Kroeze, C., Potting, J., Barros, V. D., Aragão, F. A., Gondim, R. S., . . . Boer, I. J. (2013). The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon. Journal of Cleaner Production, 47, 404-414. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.09.015

Fritsche, U. R., & Eberle, U. (July 2009). Greenhouse-Gas Emissions from the Production and Processing of Food – working paper – (Rep.). Oko-Institute.

Guidelines for Measuring and Managing CO2 Emission from Freight Transport Operations. (2011, March). Retrieved April 15, 2017, from;_ylu=X3oDMTEycGM3Z2dhBGNvbG8DYmYxBHBvcwMxBHZ0aWQDQjM4ODZfMQRzZWMDc3I-/RV=2/RE=1492328710/RO=10/

The International EPD® System – Environmental Product Declarations. (2009, December 30). Retrieved March 27, 2017, from

IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (n.d.). Retrieved April 05, 2017, from

Jungmichel, N. July 5, (2010). The Carbon Footprint of Textiles (Publication).

Killian, B., Rivera, L., Sota, M., & Navichoc, D. (2013). Carbon Footprint Across the Coffee Supply Chain: The Case of Costa Rican Coffee. Journal of Agricultural Science and Techology, 151-170. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from

Klimakiller Flugzeuge Zur Umweltrelevanz des Luftverkehrs. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2017, from

Lifecycle Assessment: reusable mugs vs. disposable cups (Rep.). (25 April 2013.). Bern: Refiller.

Mekonnen, M. M., & Hoekstra, A. Y. (2011). The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 8(1), 763-809. doi:10.5194/hessd-8-763-2011

Pihkola, H., Nors, M., Kujanpaa, M., Helin, T., Kariniemi, M., & Pajula, T. (2010). Carbon footprint and environmental impacts of print products from cradle to grave. Espoo: VTT.

Product Carbon Footprint Summary – Tesco PLC. (n.d.). Retrieved April 04, 2017, from

Rivera, X. C., Orias, N. E., & Azapagic, A. (2014). Life cycle environmental impacts of convenience food: Comparison of ready and home-made meals. Journal of Cleaner Production, 73, 294-309. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.008

Roos, S., Sandin, G., Zamani, B., & Peters, G. (June, 2015). Environmental Assessment of Swedish Fashion Consumption (Rep.).

Rugani, B., Vazquez-Rowe, I., Benedetto, G., & Benetto, E. (2012). A Comprehensive Review of Carbon Footprint Analysis as an Extended Environmental Indicator in the Wine Sectore. Journal of Cleaner Production, 61-77. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from

Saunders, C., Barber, A., & Taylor, G. (2006). Food Miles – Comparative Energy/Emissions Performance of New Zealand’s Agriculture Industry (Rep. No. 285). Christchurch: Lincoln University.

Spreen, T., Dwivedi, P., & Goodrich-Schneider, R. (2010). Estimating the Carbon Footprint of Florida Orange Juice. Proceedings in Food System Dynamics, 95-101.

A Study Into the Feasibility of Benchmarking Carbon Footprints of Furniture Products (Rep.). (2011). FIRA International.

Summary. (n.d.). Retrieved March 29, 2017, from

“What’s The Carbon Footprint Of A Coca‑Cola?”. N.p., 2017. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.

Teehan, P., & Kandlikar, M. (2013). Comparing Embodied Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Modern Computing and Electronics Products. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(9), 3997-4003. doi:10.1021/es303012r

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2017, from

Us, D. (n.d.). Design for Environment. Retrieved March 27, 2017, from

Vergé, X., Maxime, D., Dyer, J., Desjardins, R., Arcand, Y., & Vanderzaag, A. (2013). Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: Calculations and issues. Journal of Dairy Science, 96(9), 6091-6104. doi:10.3168/jds.2013-6563

Werner, L. B., Flysjö, A., & Tholstrup, T. (2014). Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark: the carbon footprint and nutritional value of dairy products. Food & Nutrition Research, 58(1), 20687. doi:10.3402/fnr.v58.20687

Wessels, M. M. (November 10, 2015). Carbon and water footprint for a soft drink manufacturer in South Africa (Unpublished master’s thesis).

Winther, U., Ziegler, F., Hognes, E. S., Emanuelsson, A., Sund, V., & Ellingsen, H. (December, 2009.). Carbon Footprint and Energy Use of Norwegian Seafood Products (Rep.).

Yan, M., Luo, T., Bian, R., Cheng, K., Pan, G., & Rees, R. (2015). A comparative study on carbon footprint of rice production between household and aggregated farms from Jiangxi, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(6). doi:10.1007/s10661-015-4572-9

Vanham, D., Hoekstra, A., & Bidoglio, G. (2013). Potential water saving through changes in European diets. Environment International, 61, 45-56. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2013.09.011


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